Pharmacological Interventions with Dual and Triple Hormone Receptor Agonists in Obesity presented by Michael Camilleri

Update by Dr. Manoj Chawla

Dr. Manoj Chawla explains how nutrient intake and neurohormonal response are intricately connected, with the arrival of certain nutrients in the upper GI tract triggering the release of hormones like glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and insulin.

Strategies for Managing Overweight or Obesity

There are various strategies for managing obesity ranging from surgical procedures like gastric bypass to drug therapies. However, previous drugs often had limited efficacy and significant side effects. Current approaches include drugs like SGLT2 inhibitors, which though not primarily weight loss drugs, can lead to weight loss due to renal glycosuria.

Current Approved Incretins

Newer drugs like GLP and GIP agonists, and future options like tirzepatide, are focused on increasing satiety and reducing insulin resistance for weight loss. Approved incretin drugs include exenatide, liraglutide, semaglutide, dulaglutide, and tirzepatide, with varying dosing regimens and side effect profiles. GLP-1 agonists work partly by slowing gastric emptying, which is associated with weight loss.

Tirzepatide Efficacy

Tirzepatide demonstrates significant weight loss potential, with a titration regimen starting from 2.5 milligrams weekly. It shows a relatively lower side effect profile compared to other GLP-1 receptor agonists.

Combination Therapies

Future directions include triple agonists targeting GLP-1, GIP, and glucagon receptors. Ongoing trials compare the efficacy and safety of newer drugs like cagrilintide with semaglutide against established tirzepatide.

Dr. Manoj Chawla summarizes how New pharmacological agents offer promising options for obesity management, potentially reducing the reliance on surgical interventions. Dual and triple agonists show central effects on appetite and gastric emptying, facilitating weight loss with manageable gastrointestinal side effects.


Update on Weekly Insulin iCodec: The Way of the Future by Julio Rosenstock

Update by Dr. Manoj Chawla

Dr. Manoj Chawla outlines the evolution of insulin therapy from NPH insulin to first-generation basal insulin analogs and longer-acting basal insulin analogs like Degludec and U300 glargine.

  • The need for weekly insulin arises from the limitations of daily basal insulin injections, such as inconsistent administration, poor adherence, and high treatment burden.
  • Weekly insulin could improve patient persistence and adherence, reduce treatment burden, and potentially enhance glucose control with better compliance.

iCodec features three amino acid substitutions in human insulin structure, along with attachment to a C20 Icosane Fatty Diacid chain for strong reversible binding to albumin there by reducing enzymatic degradation and receptor-mediated clearance, achieving a half-life of approximately one week.

iCodec underwent robust phase 3 clinical trials (ONWARD series) comparing it with non-insulin glucose-lowering therapy, Glargine, and Degludec. Results show superiority in HbA1c reduction (<7%), lower rates of hypoglycemia and better treatment satisfaction. Dr. Manoj Chawla expresses optimism about the transformative potential of weekly basal insulins like iCodec, anticipating FDA approval and widespread adoption among patients for improved diabetes management.


Insulin Pump Therapy in T2DM with Empagliflozin Improved Glucose Control by Soobang Choi

Update by Dr. Manoj Chawla

  • Addition of empagliflozin to insulin pump treatment for type 2 diabetes patients improves glycemic control, C-peptidogenic index, and insulin dosing.
  • Also the therapy also stabilizes BMI and offers benefits for renal function.
  • Patients on insulin pump or multiple insulin therapies who are not on SGLT2 inhibitors could benefit from considering this addition.


Significant Improvement in Glycemic Outcomes in T2D Patients: The Impact of 14-day Personalized Coaching and Continuous Glucose Monitoring on Glycemic Variations

Update by Dr. Manoj Chawla

  • Manoj Chawla highlights the availability of numerous digital therapeutic options for managing diabetes effectively with study that evaluates the impact of a 14-day personalized coaching program combined with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM).
  • Data from the SugarFit coaching program demonstrated notable improvements in glycemic control over the 14-day period.
  • Comparing the initial three days with the final 14 days, there was a noticeable enhancement in time in range (TIR) and estimated A1c.
  • This suggests the effectiveness of personalized coaching combined with CGM in optimizing diabetes management and improving patient outcomes.


AI in Diabetes

Update by Dr. Banshi Saboo and Dr. Amit Gupta

There is widespread interest in AI in diabetes, evident from numerous Google hits on the topic. Dr. Banshi Saboo highlights the increasing interest in AI in this field, as evidenced by the numerous hits on Google related to AI in diabetes. Dr. Amit emphasizes the revolutionary impact of technology in diabetes management, with AI expected to play a crucial role in improving patient care.


Despite the potential benefits of technology, there are challenges in AI adoption, particularly in busy clinical settings. But the benefits of technology, including AI, enhances diabetes care.


  • AI-driven solutions are expected to play a significant role in improving patient care and outcomes.
  • AI may provide clinical decision support, predict complications, and enhance personalized treatment approaches.
  • AI could streamline diabetes management by analysing vast amounts of data and providing clinical decision support.
  • Predictive analysis based on AI models may help identify patients at risk of developing complications, enabling more proactive interventions.

Advancements in Diabetes Technologies

  • Studies presented at the ATTD conference showcased the effectiveness of digital therapeutic options, including personalized coaching combined with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM).
  • Emerging technologies such as transdermal GLP-1 delivery systems and predictive glucose monitoring were highlighted as potential game-changers.
  • AI advances such as neural networks enhancing artificial pancreas systems and predictive glucose monitoring technologies have proven the role of AI.

Type 2 Diabetes and Innovative Therapies

  • The integration of CGM, GLP-1 receptor agonists, and SGLT2 inhibitors is changing the treatment paradigm, especially in type 2 diabetes.
  • Emerging technologies such as transdermal delivery systems for GLP-1 are being explored, offering potential alternatives to injectable therapies.
  • Ongoing research on once-weekly insulin therapy and transdermal GLP-1 administration indicates potential transformative changes in diabetes treatment.

Future of Diabetes

  • The future of AI in diabetes management looks promising, with ongoing research focusing on predictive analytics, preventive care through digital therapeutics, and innovative therapies like transdermal GLP-1 administration, suggesting a transformative shift in diabetes treatment paradigms.
  • The future of diabetes management, includes potential advancements in stem cell therapy and artificial islet cell production to cure type 1 diabetes.